The discovery of archaeological remains and primitive human fossils in the nineteenth century led to a systematic study of human origins using an illustrative scientific framework.
The slow acceptance of the ancient time that eventually involved humans, divided human history into history and prehistory.
The deep story of the ancient history or the forgotten history has been associated with a deep evolutionary origin with the presentation of the scientific theory of the lineage with modification.
books and publications in the late 19th century about the theory of evolution
There have been a number of major events and publications that have helped to shape early theories of human evolution, including the publication of « Darwin’s Origin of Species » in the year (1859) and « Descent of Man » in the year (1871 ), and « Geological Evidences to the Antiquity of Man » by Charles Lyell, the guide of Thomas Henry Huxley « Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature » (1863), John Lubbock’s book « pre-historic times »
Neanderthals discovery :
in the year (1865), the discovery of the species called Neanderthals in Belgium, Gibraltar, Germany, and France, as well as archaeological artifacts like stone tools, engraved kitchen utensils from early settlements, as well as cultural expressions as cave paintings that have been found in Spain and also France.
Other discoveries :
Beginning from the second half of the 19th century, the theories of human evolution were for the most part motivated by discoveries. Archaeological proof, including everything, every item that humans (hominins) did, played an important role in generating more evidence and founding theories about the attitude of early modern humans.
Another source of knowledge that establishes evolutionary kinship is comparative anatomy, which means that organisms are closely related to each other. But fossil proof was considered a very important factor invalidating the theory of evolution, leading to a race to find a missing link between humans and apes.
With a limited fossil record, many questions remain in human speculative development. Thus, the theoretical preference was, even more, the disposition in which the excavations were discovered in different places and which determined the preferred geographical location of human origins.
Darwin originally proposed Africa, but it was a minority. Asia was generally regarded as the most likely place for the cradle of humanity, which was supported by the recognition by Euge Dubois’ of the first erection of Homo (1891-1892) found, at an era known as Java Man echoing The excavation site.
With the emergence of a number of excavations in Germany, France, Belgium and Great Britain, including the first recognized Neanderthals (1856), Homo Heidelbergensis (1907) and the famous Peltown Man (1912), Europe enters the race for the first human.
The discovery of Australopithecus africanus in South Africa in 1924 first aroused suspicion and the site of the true origin of human beings remains uncertain. As the number of early human fossils increased, particularly from Africa, analysis of the human family tree improved.
But with only a few fossils to build ancestral strains, there was a huge difference between prominent ancient biologists. Some are controversial for certain species, others for a greater variety than the first Indian humans. These groups are commonly known as peers and splitters.
The scarcity of fossil data has also given way to radically different interpretations of the human family tree. For decades, two theories have coexisted. The “Exodus from Africa” hypothesis emphasized the descendants of modern humans from a common ancestor with increased support for African descendants.
Another theory called the multi-regional theory has argued with a multi-line trend theory which assumes the territorial origins of modern humans of different ancestral types. As the tides shifted in favor of the “African exit hypothesis” in the 1980s, the multi-line model gradually began.
After the “fossil explosion”, which saw 11 new species and four new species named since 1987, a better understanding of the extent of the variation in the hominin phenotype.
Since then, two other developments have revolutionized the experimental base that supports human development and has emphasized the importance of interdisciplinary research such as dating techniques and genetics.