With modern Homo sapiens (humans), the variety of stone tools explodes. Humans started working with new materials (bone and wood) and objects never encountered appears: ” pierced, mortars, insects, rinsers, axes attached to wooden handles, bayonets, eye needles, hooks, arches, arrows, harpoon, etc. A primitive stone lamp filled with hollow animal fats and equipped with the end of juniper that allows lighting.
Homo sapiens also made their first “useless” objects, but so characteristic of the spiritual wealth of our species, such as jewelry (pendants), and devotes himself to other forms of art: musical instruments (flutes), sculptures, cave paintings.
18,000 years ago
Fishing activities are attested as early as -18,000 years while hunting techniques are improving. Even if the main prey remains a small game, it is believed that humans are responsible, at least in part, for the disappearance of the megafauna (mammoth, woolly rhino, etc.).
homo sapiens also exchanges materials over long distances, rather than limiting themselves to the resources available within a radius of a few square kilometers like our most distant ancestors did.
In short, the human being of this time is characterized by overflowing abilities of innovation and creation and there is nothing to envy to the capacities of our contemporaries.
12,000 years ago
A crucial period in the history of humanity takes place 12,000 years ago, with the Neolithic Revolution, because a significant change of consequences is taking place: almost everywhere on the planet, the human being invents agriculture, the domestication and becomes sedentary.
As a result, access to food becomes more regular, hard work can be done by beasts of burden and changing social relationships. As the fire is perfectly under control, humans develop pottery.
He also works with leather. Ancient civilizations (Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India) and the first city-states developed, the writing was invented and scientific knowledge flourished, especially in astronomy.
Humans also use natural fibers such as silk and cotton. After ceramics, the control of fire opens the way to metallurgy, first by forging metals (gold, copper, silver, lead).
Then came the era of copper-based alloys (bronze, tin) and later iron-based. Like many technologies, the different stages of metallurgy developed at different times depending on the geographic area and the cultures considered.
From 3rd to 17th century
A significant increase in energy is obtained by using the energy provided by nature: water and wind.
It seems that the first windmills appeared in the 3rd century BC, while the first windmills date back to the 7th century AD and multiplied in the Middle Ages. Gunpowder was invented in China around the 7th century.
Boats made technical progress in the Middle Ages. In the 15th century, Gutenberg preferred to develop printing by developing removable characters.
While in the 16th century Nicholas Copernicus laid the foundations of the world solar system, Galileo Galilei in the 17th century invented the telescope and observed the moon, the rings of Saturn and the satellites of Jupiter, confirming the vision of Copernicus. Medieval Europe was also the scene of a general degradation of its forests to make room for agricultural land and to serve as fuel or private equipment for navigation.
The balloon made its first experimental flight in around 1783 while Nicholas Abert invented the principle of canned food in 1795.
A major technological change occurred in the eighteenth century, while work in thermodynamics, particularly James Watt, led to the development of the first thermal machines that convert energy Thermal from combustion (wood and coal) to mechanical energy.
This mechanization will naturally lead to the industrial revolution, which is the starting point for the extensive use of fossil fuels. The first efforts to develop a car could begin and would really culminate in the late nineteenth century.
Thermal machines will especially allow the development of the steam train and rail network in Europe and North America. Later on, mechanization will facilitate and increase construction work.